Fine fibrous roots which take up water and minerals from the ground. Most of the absorbing roots are within the top 30 centimetres (12 inches) of soil.
Arboriculture is the management and cultivation of individual trees or woody plants. Arborists are people trained in arboriculture and conduct a variety of tasks such as selection, planting, training, pruning, removal & risk management. Arborists also consider legal & aesthetic issues and can identify pests and pathogens.
A dangerous condition which can occur in leaning trees. As the tree is cut it can split vertically from the cut upwards with explosive force. This can result in a dead or severely wounded operative.
Where the saw tip is plunged into the tree to form a hinge before the saw is moved towards the back of the tree to leave a peg. The peg secures the tree from falling until the hinge is correctly formed and can reduce the risk of ‘barber chair’.
A knot used to form a secure loop in a rope to which items can be attached.
Cambium cells are located inside many trees and plants. They are meristematic (can divide to produce new cells) which gives rise to phloem cells (on the outside of the cambium layer) and xylem cells (on the inside of the cambium layer)
The local planning department can create a conservation area to protect the trees within the area. This can be used to protect the look and feel of an area or to protect a small area where generating a large number of TPOs would be to onerous to introduce. We will check if you are in a conservation area and take the appropriate action. This check is provided to our clients for free.
A deciduous tree or plant is one which sheds all its leaves during the autumn in preparation for winter. Compare to evergreen
A tree which continuously sheds its leaves as a process of renewal but does not shed all of its foliage annually. Compare to deciduous
A false crotch (also known as a cambium saver) is installed when there is no natural crotch for the ropes to run over, to protect the natural crotch from damage or to reduce wear on ropes.
A root that encircles all or part of the trunk of a tree or other roots. As the girdling root grows it constricts the vascular tissue, inhibits growth and hinders the movement of water, minerals and photosynthates.
Rings which are formed in the xylem and visible in a cross section of the stem, branch and sometimes root of trees and some plants. In temperate zones one ring usually represents one year of growth and are sometimes called annual rings.
The inner, non functional core of the xylem that provides structural strength and chemical defence against decay.
Bark that becomes embedded within the tree. It is usually formed when a limb and the trunk form an acute angle (V union) or in-between codominant stems. Included bark creates a weak structure
Kickback occurs when the upper tip of the saw is used to cut. This results in sudden and sometimes violent movement of the saw in an upwards and backwards motion
During lignification Xylem cells deposit lignin, a complex chemical compound, in their cell walls. This strengthens the cells and turns them into wood. Lignin plays an important role in the carbon cycle, it is a good fuel and highly lignified wood is durable. Lignin is the reason why newspapers turn yellow over time and must be removed before higher quality paper can be made.
Lion tailing (lion’s tailing)
Lion tailing is a poor pruning process in which an excessive amount of branches are removed from the inside of the crown. The tree is left with clumps of foliage on the extremities of the limbs. This can weaken the branches and can lead to sunburnt bark tissue.
A type of symbiotic relationship in which two organisms live closely together. Each organism provide a benefit to the other.
A symbiotic and often mutualistic association between certain fungi and the roots of a plant. The fungi is provided with access to carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose, while the plant benefits from the fungi’s greater ability to absorb water and some nutrients. Plants with mycorrhizae have a greater resistance to soil-borne pathogens and the effects of drought.
NPTC – National Proficiency Tests Council
The UK body responsible for providing proficiency tests for the use of chainsaws, forestry and many related tests. The NPTC website can be found here – http://www.nptc.org.uk
Pruning a tree to decrease height, density and/or spread of a branch or crown
The area where the main roots join the stem. This is usually near ground level
The outer part of the xylem that transports water and minerals. Compare to heartwood
A close and long standing relationship between two organisms. The relationship may be mutualistic (beneficial to both organisms),competitive (both organisms suffer), commensalistic (beneficial to one while the other is not affected) or parasitic (one organism benefits while the other one is harmed)
A Tree Preservation Order (TPO) can be placed on any tree to protect. If a tree is covered by a TPO then you cannot conduct any work upon the tree without written consent from the local planning department. We conduct TPO searches for our clients free of charge.
Tissue which transports water and minerals in trees and other plants. It is unidirectional (moves materials away from the roots) and also provides structural support. Xylem cell become wood after they go through the process of lignification. Compare to phloem